When making substitutions for alcohols, it is important to keep the volume of liquid in the recipe the same as originally called for. Depending on the recipe, apple juice or chicken broth often makes a good substitution for wine. When using flavored liqueurs, extracts can be substituted if you make up the balance of the liquid with water. For example, if a recipe calls for 2 tablespoons Grand Marnier you could use 1/2 teaspoon orange extract. Just be sure to get the same level of orange flavor. This may take some experimentation.
1/4 teaspoon baking soda plus 1/2 teaspoon cream of tartar can be substituted for 1 teaspoon baking powder.
There is no recommended substitute for baking soda.
Unsalted butter can be substituted for regular butter in any recipe. It is NOT necessary to add salt. Margarine can also be substituted for butter. Do NOT use lowfat spreads or light butter for baking.
1 tablespoon vinegar plus enough milk to equal 1 cup OR 2/3 cup plain yogurt plus 1/3 cup milk can be substituted for 1 cup buttermilk.
Chicken or Beef Broth
1 cup hot water and 1 teaspoon instant bouillon granules (or 1 bouillon cube) can be substituted for 1 cup broth.
Chocolate Chips, Semi-Sweet
6 ounces semi-sweet chocolate, chopped, can be substituted for 1 cup (6 ounces) semi-sweet chocolate chips. When substituting for chocolate chips, make sure to use the same type of chocolate (i.e. semi-sweet, milk).
3 tablespoons chocolate chips OR 1 square (1-ounce) unsweetened chocolate plus 1 tablespoon sugar can be substituted for 1 square (1-ounce) semi-sweet chocolate. 6 tablespoons unsweetened cocoa powder plus 7 tablespoons sugar plus 1/4 cup fat can be substituted for 6 ounces semi-sweet chocolate.
Chocolate, Sweet Baking (German)
1/4 cup unsweetened cocoa powder plus 1/3 cup sugar and 3 tablespoons fat can be substituted for 4 ounces German sweet baking chocolate.
1 2/3 ounce semisweet chocolate (reduce sugar in recipe by 2 teaspoons) OR 3 tablespoons unsweetened cocoa plus 1 tablespoon butter, margarine or shortening can be used instead of 1 ounce unsweetened baking chocolate or 1 ounce premelted unsweetened chocolate.
1/2 cup hot water and 1 teaspoon instant coffee granules can be substituted for 1/2 cup strong brewed coffee.
Can usually be successfully substituted for shortening to prepare baking sheets and baking pans.
2 tablespoons all-purpose flour or 2 teaspoons arrowroot starch can be substituted for 1 tablespoon cornstarch.
Corn Syrup, Light
1 cup dark corn syrup can be substituted for 1 cup light corn syrup, and vice versa. (Note: Flavor will be affected somewhat.) OR substitute 1 1/4 cups sugar plus 1/3 cups liquid.
Cream (20% fat) (Coffee Cream)
3 tablespoon butter plus 7/8 cup milk can be substituted for 1 cup cream (in baking and cooking).
Cream (40% fat) (Whipping Cream)
1/3 cup butter plus 3/4 cup milk can be substituted for 1 cup cream (in baking and cooking).
Cream of Tartar
There is no recommended substitution for cream of tartar.
Meringue powder can be substituted for egg whites in a meringue application. Three egg whites equal approximately 3 tablespoons meringue powder plus 6 tablespoons water.
It is not recommended that you substitute flavor extracts for flavor oils. Oil based flavorings are necessary for hard candies because the liquid portion of the extracts add too much liquid, causing steam, to the hard candy syrup.
Flour (as thickener)
1/2 tablespoon cornstarch, potato starch, rice starch, arrowroot starch, or 1 tablespoon quick-cooking tapioca can be substituted for 1 tablespoon all-purpose flour.
1 cup minus 2 tablespoons all-purpose flour can be substituted for 1 cup cake flour.
1 cup all-purpose flour plus 1 1/2 teaspoons baking powder and 1/2 teaspoon salt can be substituted for 1 cup self-rising flour.
1/8 to 1/4 teaspoon instant minced garlic or 1/8 teaspoon garlic powder can be substituted for 1 clove minced garlic.
1 tablespoon fresh herbs equals 1 teaspoon dried herbs.
1 1/4 cups sugar plus 1/3 cup liquid (use whatever liquid is called for in the recipe) can be substituted for 1 cup honey.
1/4 teaspoon EACH dried oregano leaves, dried marjoram leaves and dried basil leaves plus 1/8 teaspoon rubbed dried sage can be substituted for 1 1/2 teaspoons Italian seasoning.
You can't substitute meringue powder for egg whites in most recipes because it contains other ingredients such as sugar.
1/2 cup evaporated milk plus 1/2 cup water OR 1 cup water plus 1/3 cup nonfat evaporated dry milk powder OR 1 cup skim milk plus 2 teaspoons melted butter can be substituted for 1 cup whole milk. NOTE:Whole milk is higher in total fat than low-fat milk. If a baking recipe calls for whole milk, you may be able to substitute a low-fat milk variety like skim, 1% or 2% fat. Be cautious about substituting skim milk in pudding, custard and sauce recipes. These recipes rely on the dairy fat for added texture and flavor. Baked items such as cakes and cookies can usually tolerate the use of low-fat milk.
1 cup honey can be substituted for 1 cup molasses. (and vice versa) Note: flavor will be affected.
1 tablespoon prepared mustard can be substituted for 1 teaspoon dry mustard.
1/2 teaspoon dry mustard plus 2 teaspoons vinegar can be substituted for 1 tablespoon prepared mustard.
1 cup melted butter, margarine or shortening can be substituted for 1 cup oil. Note:Recipe results may vary. Texture and appearance may be affected.
1/4 cup instant minced onion, flaked onion OR 1 teaspoon onion powder can be substituted for 1 cup (1 medium) chopped onion.
1/4 teaspoon ground thyme plus 3/4 teaspoon ground sage can be substituted for 1 teaspoon poultry seasoning.
Pumpkin Pie Spice
1/2 teaspoon cinnamon plus 1/4 teaspoon ginger and 1/8 teaspoon EACH nutmeg and cloves can be substituted for 1 teaspoon pumpkin pie spice.
1 cup butter or margarine can be substituted for 1 cup shortening. When using shortening in place of butter or margarine, 1 tablespoon milk or water for each 1/2 cup shortening used may need to be added. DO NOTsubstitute vegetable oil for shortening when recipe calls for melting the shortening.
1 cup plain yogurt can be substituted for 1 cup sour cream.
1 cup firmly packed brown sugar can be substituted for 1 cup sugar. Note: Flavor will be affected somewhat.
Sugar, Light Brown
1/2 cup firmly packed dark brown sugar and 1/2 cup sugar can be substituted for 1 cup firmly packed light brown sugar. (Slight flavor differences will occur.)
1 (18-ounce) can vacuum-packed sweet potatoes can be substituted for 1 (23-ounce) can sweet potatoes, drained.
3/4 cup tomato paste plus 1 cup water can be substituted for 1 cup tomato sauce.
1/2 cup fruit juice can be substituted for 1/2 cup wine in desserts. 1/2 cup chicken broth can be substituted for 1/2 cup wine in savory recipes.